DNA ośmiornicy nie pochodzi z Ziemi

Najnowsze badania przeprowadzone przez naukowców sugerują, że DNA należące do ośmiornicy może być obcego pochodzenia. Gen tych istot jest tak bardzo złożony i nie występuje w podobnej postaci u innego zwierzęcia. Ośmiornice posiadają ponad trzydzieści trzy tysiące białek kodowanych czyli znacznie więcej niż u człowieka.

Oceany naszej planety ukrywają niezliczone ilości tajemniczych gatunków, które mogą zawierać w sobie odpowiedź na początki naszego życia. W ostatnich dekadach podwodni biolodzy uzyskali mały ale nabierający coraz większego rozpędu progres w badaniach na temat zrozumienia naszego życia i natury.

https://youtu.be/kbMyeQpD5Yw

Grupa badaczy zdecydowała się na przeprowadzenie badań na wybranych głowonogach starając się złamać ich kod DNA mając nadzieje, że dzięki temu poznają lepiej tą gromadę.

Ośmiornice, kalmary i mątwy należą do płaszczobrosłów, podgromady głowonogów. Ich ewolucyjna historia sięga ponad 500 milionów lat i mogą żyć niemal na każdej głębokości. Charakteryzują je przede wszystkim szeroki wachlarz niesamowitych zmarszczek morfologicznych: Oczy jak kamery i bardzo elastyczne ciało, posiadające właściwości kamuflażu. Wszystko to i wiele więcej „zarządzane” jest przez większy niż inne bezkręgowce system nerwowy, który sprawia że te istoty są władcami oceanów.

Płaszczobrosłe posiadają wysoce rozwinięty mózg i są uważane za najbardziej inteligentne bezkręgowce wykazujące umiejętność w wyszukanym „rozwiązywaniu problemów”. Jako ciekawostkę można podać, że ośmiornica potrafi otwierać słoiki z dżemem.
Dzięki odkryciu pierwszej w historii pełnej sekwencji genomu, naukowcy stwierdzili że ośmiornice całkowicie różnią się od innych zwierząt na naszej planecie. Ich geny przedstawiają taki poziom złożoności, który nie zaobserwowany dotąd u żadnego z gatunków natomiast poziom genów kodujących białka wynoszący u tych istot 33 000 tysiące znacznie przebija poziom występujący u człowieka.
Jednym z powodów dlaczego naukowcy postanowili zbadać molekularne podstawy mózgu głowonogów jest jego zdolność, która pozwala na szybkie przystosowanie swoich właściwości sieci neuronowych  i tym samym zwiększenie pojemności pamięci i uczenia się.
Według naukowców z Uniwersytetu w Chicago, gen ośmiornicy bogaty jest transpozony powszechnie określany jako „skaczący gen”. Badacze stwierdzili podwyższoną ekspresje transpozynu w tkankach nerwowych wpływający na regulację ekspresji genu i uznano, że mają główną rolę w kształtowaniu struktury genu.
Z kilkoma wyjątkami, ośmiornica ma typowy bezkręgowy genom który został całkowicie przegrupowany. To tak jakby umieścić go w blenderze i zmiksować. Prowadzi to do genów wprowadzonych w nowym gemowym środowisku z różnymi elementami regulacyjnymi. – Caroline Albertin, współautor i absolwent Biologii organicznej i anatomii na Uniwersytecie w Chicago (źródło).
Czy rzeczywiście ośmiornice mają „obcy” bagaż? W raporcie naukowym stwierdzono, że te istoty mogą właśnie pochodzić z obcych światów. Jest to jednak bardzo grząski grunt, który powoduje przewroty w świecie morskich biologów.
Podziel się

136 thoughts on “DNA ośmiornicy nie pochodzi z Ziemi

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