Proxima B: Nasza druga Ziemia

Najnowsza odkryta planeta Proxima B została nazwana drugą Ziemią. Astronomowie wierzą, że to ciało niebieskie zlokalizowane w ekosferze czyli strefie nadającej się do zamieszkania będzie mogła stać się naszym drugim domem. Proxima B to skalna planeta posiadająca na swojej powierzchni wodę w stanie ciekłym i atmosferę nadającą się do oddychania.

https://youtu.be/bAd86VelSho

Zanim jednak zaczniemy pakować swoje walizki i odpalać rakietowe silniki trzeba powiedzieć najważniejszą rzecz – nikt takiej planety jeszcze nie zobaczył na własne oczy. Brzmi to trochę jak czeski film. Mimo, iż badacze nie zobaczyli planety to wiedzą, że Proxima B rzeczywiście istnieje ponieważ zostawiła zmiany grawitacyjne w gwiazdozbiorze Centaura.

Według obliczeń, Proxima B orbituje wokół gwiazdy i znajduje się w idealnej strefie tak zwanej „Goldilocks zone”. Nazwa tej strefy pochodzi z bajki o Złotowłosej i trzech misiach, w której trzecia miska z owsianką nie była ani za zimna, ani za ciepła, lecz w sam raz dla Złotowłosej. To samo tyczy się planet ulokowanych w tym obszarze, które znajdują się w idealnej odległości od gwiazd aby mogła istnieć na nich powierzchni woda w stanie ciekłym. [1]

Druga Ziemia zlokalizowana jest 4.2 lata świetlne od naszej planety. Jeden rok na Proxima B trwa tylko 11, 2 dni co tym samym skutkuje problemami w wykryciu tej planety ze względu na zbyt wielką jasność gwiazdy-matki.

Jednak jak twierdzą naukowcy wcale nie potrzebujemy zdjęcia planety aby móc odpowiedzieć na jedno zasadnicze pytanie: czy Proxima B posiada atmosferę zdolną do oddychania? Czy jest to bez wietrzne pustkowie takie jak nasz Księżyc? [2]

eyeball-earth-ring-habitable-planet-1024x1024

Teraz dwóch badaczy z Harvardu wierzą, że nowa zabawka NASA – James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), który zostanie uruchomiony w 2018 roku pozwoli na rozwikłanie tajemnicy stojącej za tą planetą.

Samym światłem odbitym, możemy stwierdzić czy planeta jest zwykłą skała. Jeśli nie, to czy posiada atmosferę i czy może zawierać także oceany w stanie ciekłym, niezbędne do wytworzenia życia. – powiedział Avi Loeb, astrofizyk z Uniwersytetu Harvard.

Podczas gdy wielu naukowców jest zafascynowana planeta Proxima B szczególnie ze względu, że mogło się na niej rozwinąć obce życie, to inni wylewają na nich kubeł zimnej wody studząc ich zapał podając przy tym kilka szczegółów.

Owszem mimo, że planeta ulokowana jest w „Goldilocks zone” to Proxima B znajduje się około 6 milionów kilometrów od swojej Gwiazdy. To tak jakby nasz Księżyc leżał od nas 17 razy dalej. Dodatkowo według hipotez naukowców, Proxima B zawsze jest zwrócona ku gwieździe tą samą stroną (dokładnie jak Księżyc). Co tym samym oznacza, że jedna strona może być zawsze nasłoneczniona i żyzna podczas gdy po drugiej stornie panuje wieczny mróz i ciemność.

1 http://science.howstuffworks.com/ z dnia 15.09.2016
2 http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-earth-next-door/

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61 thoughts on “Proxima B: Nasza druga Ziemia

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